Questões Estrangeiras. I-Juca-Pirama. It was supposed to be a nature walk. That’s all I’ll say. We met in front of the bondinho station at 8 a.m., the city still a bit . (original file) ( × pixels, file size: 47 KB, MIME type: I -Juca-Pirama is a short epic poem written by Brazilian author Gonçalves Dias. I-Juca-Pirama. Written in , this work is based on a poem from the 19th century by the Brazilian poet Gonçalves Dias. The translation of the title, from the tupi.

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Written under decasyllabic and alexandrine verses, and divided in ten cantos, it is one of the most famous Indianist poems of Brazilian Romanticism. The poem tells the story of a Tupi warrior who is captured by an enemy, cannibal tribe — the Timbiras. As he is about to be killed and offered in sacrifice, he begs for mercy in order to be freed and return to his home, where his old, sick and blind father waits for him.

The Timbiras then allow the Tupi warrior to go. The warrior reunites with his father. After smelling the sacrificial paint in his son’s body and hearing that he was let go, his father demands they head back to the Timbiras’ tribe in order for them to continue the sacrifice ceremony.

However, the cacique chief of the Timbiras tells the old man that they no longer want the Tupi warrior to be sacrificed, since he begged for mercy and thus is a coward.

Angered, the old man curses his son, saying that he is the disgrace of the Tupi tribe. The son cannot stand his father’s hate, and suddenly wages war all alone against the whole Timbira tribe.

The old man listens to his son’s war screams and realizes that he is fighting with honor. The battle is only finished when the Timbira cacique recognizes the valor of his enemy and says:.

As the worlds fifth-largest country by area and population, it is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language.

Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to wildlife, a variety of ecological systems. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony untilwhen the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, inthe colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a state governed under a constitutional monarchy.

An authoritarian military junta came to power in and ruled untilBrazils current constitution, formulated indefines it as a democratic federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, Brazils economy is the worlds ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until had one of the worlds fastest growing economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition.

Brazils national development bank plays an important role for the economic growth. Brazil is a power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs. One of the worlds major breadbaskets, Brazil has been the largest producer of coffee for the last years and it is likely that the word Brazil comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast. In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology red like an ember, formed from Latin brasa and the suffix -il.

As brazilwood produces a red dye, it was highly valued by the European cloth industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil.

The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name, early sailors sometimes also called it the Land of Parrots. In the Guarani language, a language of Paraguay, Brazil is called Pindorama. Indianism arts — Indianism is a Brazilian literary and artistic movement that reached its peak during the first stages of Romanticism, though it had been present in Brazilian literature since the Baroque period.

In Romantic contexts, it is called the first generation of Brazilian Romanticism, being succeeded by the Ultra-Romanticism, after the independence of Brazil from Portugal ina heavy wave of nationalism spread through the Brazilian people. Inspired by this, poets and writers began to search for an entity that could represent, influenced by Enlightenment ideals, especially works by Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the noble savage myth, the authors chose the Brazilian Indian to represent the new nation.

Indianist works are characterized by always having an Indian as the protagonist, the poetry is very patriotic and nationalistic, exalting Brazilian fauna, flora, riches and people. Portuguese is a Romance dialect and the official language of Brazil. Lyrically, the poet Olavo Bilac, named it desconhecida e obscura. As ofBrazil has eleven recipients of the prize, Brazil also holds its own literary academy, the Brazilian Academy of Letters, a non-profit cultural organization pointed in perpetuating the care of the national language and literature.

One of the first extant documents that might be considered Brazilian literature is the Carta de Pero Vaz de Caminha and it is written by Pero Vaz de Caminha to Manuel I of Portugal, which contains a description of what Brazil looked like in Literature was often produced by members of temporary or semi-permanent academies, the most important literary centre in colonial Brazil was the prosperous Minas Gerais region, known for its gold mines, where a thriving proto-nationalist movement had begun.

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Neoclassicism, lasted for a long time, stifling innovation. It was only in that Romanticism began influencing Brazilian poetry on a large scale, a number of young poets, such as Casimiro de Abreu, began experimenting with the new style soon afterward.

This period produced some of the first standard works of Brazilian literature, the key features of the literature of the newborn country are exaggerated affect, nationalism, celebration of nature and the initial introduction of colloquial language. Azevedo was largely influenced by the poetry of Lord Byron and Alfred de Musset and this second Romantic generation was obsessed with morbidity and death.

Iracema is especially lyrical, opening with five paragraphs of pure free-style prose poetry describing the title character, the decline of Romanticism, along with a series of social transformations, occurred in the middle of the 19th century.

Wikisource — Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project, the projects aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations.

Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, the piarma officially began in November 24, under the name Project Sourceberg. The name Wikisource was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name seven months later, the project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is also cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration.

The project holds works that are either in the domain or freely licensed, professionally published works or historical source documents, not vanity products. Verification was initially made offline, or by trusting the reliability of digital libraries. Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language, now only allow works backed up with scans. While the bulk of its collection are texts, Wikisource as a whole hosts other media, some Wikisources allow user-generated annotations, subject to the specific policies of the Wikisource in question.

Wikisources early history included several changes of name and location, the original concept for Wikisource was as storage for useful or important historical texts. These texts were intended to support Wikipedia articles, by providing evidence and original source texts.

The collection was focused on important historical and cultural material. The project was originally called Project Sourceberg during its planning stages, inthere piraja a dispute on Wikipedia regarding the addition of primary source material, jucx to edit wars over their inclusion or deletion.

Project Sourceberg was suggested as a solution to this, perhaps Project Sourceberg can mainly work as an interface for easily linking from Wikipedia to a Project Gutenberg file, and as an interface for people to easily submit new work to PG.

Wed want to complement Project Gutenberg–how, exactly, and Jimmy Wales adding like Larry, Im interested that we think it over to see what we can add to Project Gutenberg. It seems unlikely lirama primary sources should in general be editable by anyone — I mean, Shakespeare is Shakespeare, unlike our commentary on his work, the project began its activity at ps.

The contributors understood the PS subdomain to mean either primary sources or Project Sourceberg, however, this resulted in Project Sourceberg occupying the subdomain of the Pashto Wikipedia. A vote on the name changed it to Wikisource on December pirma, Despite the change in name, the project did not move to its permanent URL until July 23, since Wikisource was initially juc Project Sourceberg, its first logo was a picture of an iceberg.

Poetry — Poetry has a long history, dating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or iuca a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, and the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey.

Ancient attempts to jcua poetry, such as Aristotles Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama, song and comedy. Pirrama attempts concentrated on such as repetition, verse form and rhyme.

From the midth century, poetry has sometimes been more generally regarded as a creative act employing language. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, devices such as assonance, alliteration, onomatopoeia and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects. The use of ambiguity, symbolism, irony and other elements of poetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Similarly figures of such as metaphor, simile and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived.

I-Juca Pirama () by Marília de Souza on Prezi

Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm. Some poetry types are specific to cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Much modern poetry juva a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, in todays increasingly globalized world, poets often adapt forms, styles and techniques from diverse cultures and languages.

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Some scholars believe that the art of poetry may predate literacy, others, however, suggest that poetry did not necessarily pidama writing. An example pira,a Egyptian epic k is The Story of Sinuhe, other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, and what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in poetics—the study of the aesthetics of poetry.

Some ancient societies, such as Chinas through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance, Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to define and assess the quality of poetry.

I-Juca Pirama em quadrinhos

Later aestheticians identified three major genres, epic poetry, lyric poetry, and dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry, Aristotles work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance.

English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic Negative Capability and this romantic approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. Tupi people — The Tupi people were one of the most important indigenous peoples in Brazil.

Scholars believe they first settled in the Amazon rainforest, but years ago started to spread southward. The Tupi people inhabited almost all of Brazils coast when the Portuguese first arrived there, intheir population was estimated at 1 million people, nearly equal to the population of Portugal at the time. The Tupi utilised agriculture and therefore satisfied a Neolithic condition and they grew cassava, corn, sweet potatoes, beans, peanuts, tobacco, squash, cotton and many others.

There was not a unified Tupi identity despite the fact that they were an ethnic group that spoke a common language. The remnants of tribes are today confined to Indian reservations or acculturated to some degree into the dominant society. The Tupi were divided into several tribes which would engage in war with each other.

In these wars the Tupi would normally try to capture their enemies to kill them in cannibalistic rituals. For the Tupi warriors, even when prisoners, it was an honor to die valiantly during battle or to display courage during the festivities leading to his sacrifice. The Tupi have also documented to eat the remains of dead relatives as a form of honoring them.

The practice of cannibalism among the Tupi was made famous in Europe by Hans Staden, in his account published inhe tells that the Tupi carried him to their village where it was claimed he was to be devoured at the next festivity.

I-Juca-Pirama

There, he won the friendship of a powerful chief, whom he cured of a disease. Cannibalistic rituals among Tupi and other tribes in Brazil decreased steadily after European contact, when Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish conquistador, arrived in Santa Catarina infor instance, he attempted to ban cannibalistic practices in the name of the King of Spain.

Many indigenous peoples were important for the formation of the Brazilian people, when the Muca explorers arrived in Brazil in the 16th century, the Tupi were the first Amerindian group to have contact with them.

Soon, a process of miscegenation between Portuguese settlers and indigenous women started, the Portuguese colonists rarely brought women, making the Indian women the breeding matrix of the Brazilian people. When the first Europeans arrived, the phenomenon of cunhadismo began to spread by the colony, cunhadismo was an old Indian tradition of incorporating strangers to their community. The Indians offered the Portuguese an Indian girl as wife, once he agreed, he formed a bond of kinship with all the Indians of the tribe.

Play theatre — A play is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of dialogue between characters, intended priama theatrical performance rather than just reading. Plays are performed at a variety of levels, from Broadway, Off-Broadway, regional theater, to Community theatre, there are rare dramatists, notably George Bernard Shaw, who have had little preference as to whether their plays were performed or read.

The term play can refer to both the works of playwrights and to their complete theatrical performance. Comedies are plays which are designed to be humorous, comedies are often filled with witty remarks, unusual characters, and strange circumstances.

Certain comedies are geared toward different age groups, comedies were one of the two original play types of Ancient Greece, along with tragedies. An example of a comedy would be William Shakespeares play A Midsummer Nights Dream, a generally nonsensical genre of play, farces are often overacted and often involve slapstick jcua.

An example of a farce includes William Shakespeares play The Comedy of Errors, a satire play takes a comic look oirama current events people while at the same time attempting to make a political or social statement, for example pointing out corruption.

An example of a satire would be Nikolai Gogols The Government Inspector, satire plays are generally one of the most popular forms of comedy, and often considered to be their own genre entirely.